Computer Information Systems differs depending on business needs. It also differ depending on the different levels of an organization. There are different types and classification of computer information systems, but the three major information systems are:
- Transaction Processing Systems is a system for processing information for business transactions that involves the collection, amendment or modification and retrieval of all transaction data. TPS is characterized as performance, consistency and reliability.
- Management Information Systems – Modern and computerized systems gathers relevant data continuously from outside and inside of an organization. The data is processed, integrated and stored in a data warehouse of centralized database. It is constantly updated and made accessible to all who are authorized to access it.
- Decision Support Systems is a computer program application. It analyses business data and provides the analysed data so that users can make business decisions easily and accurately. It is an information application that supports decision-making.
Categories of Information Needs
These major systems are vital and necessary to all industries, including oil and gas industry. Each system has its own characteristics and application to the industry. Each system has its own information needs and are categorized as:
- Strategic Information
- Managerial Information
- Operational Information
Strategic Information is necessary for top management especially in making decisions. In setting of policies of the organization, management needs to know the trends in returns and profits of the organization.
Managerial information is required by middle management. The information needed at this level is used for making decisions and plans that are short term. An example of this information is sales analysis for the previous quarter or yearly production details. Managerial Information systems provides such information. That is why MIS is very important to all organizations, big or small. Because of its wide coverage, most big organization creates a separate department for Management Information System so that they can look after proper functioning and related issues of the system.
Operation information is related to the day-to-day or short term information needs of the organization. This information can include attendance records of the employees, payroll and others. This kind of information is needed to carry out daily operational activities. The information system that provides the information of processing day-to-day transactions of the organization is called as the Data Processing System or Transaction Processing System. TPS or DPA provides information about processing orders, purchasing supplies, posting entries in the bank, evaluating purchase orders and others.
More info: Transaction Processing | Management Information System | Decision Support System